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深圳市鸿栢科技全新智哥伺服电动缸

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HB IES-130

0-200mm

3mm/5mm/7.5mm

70KN

19KG

HB IES-100

0-200mm

3mm/5mm

16KN

11KG

HB IES-80

0-200mm

3mm/5mm

9KN

6.5KG

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主机总体性能参数 OVERALL TECHNICAL DATA

AbstractIn many machine control and automation problems, there are two
or more axes of motion which must be coordinated. The term “multi-axis
synchronization” refers to the motion which requires coordination, and
the techniques used to achieve control of the motion. With today’s
increasing automation and machine sophistication, the control
applications have become more demanding, and the control techniques have
improved.This paper reviews some of the basic elements of motion
coordination, illustrated with the requirements of familiar
applications. A review of control choices is presented, with special
emphasis on a technique called following. The key concepts and
capabilities of following are explained with the help of a detailed web
processing example.Introduction to Multi-Axis Synchronization The term
“axis of motion” refers to one degree of freedom, or forward and
backward motion along one direction. It may be linear or rotary motion,
and may take the form of a conveyer belt, a rotary knife, or many other
types. When two or more axes of motion are involved on a single machine,
that machine is employing multi-axis motion. The axes may be working
independently, or moving together. The need for multi-axis
synchronization arises whenever the axes must move together, and the
relationship between their respective motion is important.The most
familiar example of a multi-axis application requiring synchronization
is that of an X-Y plotter. Here there are two axes, the X direction and
the Y direction. Each may move independently of each other, but if a two
dimensional figure is to be drawn accurately, their motion must be
coordinated. The figure below illustrates what happens to a 45 degree
line if the X axis starts and ends later than the Y axis.In many
machines, the synchronization requires more than the coordination of
starting and stopping. The position and velocity relationship between
the axes will often be important to the proper operation of the machine.
For example, if there are interlocking moving parts on a machine,
position coordination during motion may be required to avoid collision.
If multiple axes control the orientation of a moving part, the position
and velocity synchronization of the axes will determine how accurately
the part is oriented as it moves. In some cases, a certain velocity or
position achieved on one axis will be the signal to start motion on
another axis. In such cases, the accuracy of the eventual position
relationship of the axes will depend on how accurately the position of
first axis is monitored by the second.The Mechanical Approach to
SynchronizationBy definition, synchronization of two or more axes
requires a definite relationship between one axis and the others. Before
electronic motion control was available, the traditional approach to
this had been largely mechanical, using a central motion
source.Individual axes were driven from this source with gears and drive
trains. The gears determine the speed relationship, and the drive trains
deliver the motion to the appropriate place. Such an approach works well
if the desired gear ratio is constant and the drive train is short and
direct. More complex arrangements require more costly mechanics, and the
problems of backlash and mechanical wear become more pronounced.If the
relationship desired between axes was not constant, but needed to follow
a pattern, mechanical cams were used. The shape of the cam determines
the motion pattern of the cam follower with respect to the motion of the
cam driver. If the required shape is very complex, the cam can be quite
difficult to design, and expensive to machine and produce. Cams are also
subject to wear, which directly affects the accuracy and repeatability
of the cam follower motion.Individual axes were started and stopped
using clutches and brakes. These are required to accelerate and
decelerate the load, but as with all mechanics, they suffer the problem
of wear. They also do not allow for precise control of the position
relationship between axes, because the amount of slip during starting
and stopping can not be precisely controlled. Clutches and brakes tend
to be rough on the rest of the machinery, because of the sudden jerk
when they are engaged.Stepper and Servo Motion Control SystemsThe
availability of electronic motion control has brought solutions to the
problems inherent with the mechanical approach to synchronization. To
understand how these solutions are achieved, it is helpful to review
basic electronic motion control systems. One axis of electronic motion
control consists of the motor, the motor drive, and the controller. The
controller accepts motion commands from a host computer or an internally
stored program. These commands are interpreted by the controller to
generate continuously updated position commands (motion profiles) to the
drive. The motor drive controls the current to the motor which will
result in the commanded position. In a multiaxis system, one controller
can control several motor and drive combinations.The motion control
system may be a stepper or servo system. Stepper systems tend to be less
expensive than servo systems, but have less speed and power for a given
size of motor. In stepper systems, the drive receives position commands
in the form of low voltage pulses (steps), and adjusts the phase of the
current in two sets of motor coils to align the motor shaft. Each new
step received corresponds to an additional increment of rotation on the
shaft. Current is maintained in the motor coils, even when the motor
shaft is in the correct position. Common step motor resolutions range
from 200 steps per revolution (full stepping) to 50,000 steps per
revolution (micro-stepping).Servo systems employ motor shaft position
feedback , either from an incremental encoder or from a resolver. The
actual position and velocity derived from the feedback is compared to
that commanded in the motion profile to result in a torque command to
the drive. In servo motors, the phase of the current is adjusted
according to the actual position of the shaft. It is continuously
adjusted to produce maximum torque for a given current amplitude. This
process is called commutation, and is done mechanically in brushed
motors, and electronically in brushless motors. The drive controls the
amplitude of the current to the motor in proportion to the torque
command. In analog servo systems, the feedback goes to the controller,
and the controller’s output is an analog torque command. In digital
servo systems, the drive accepts steps as the position commands, and the
shaft feedback goes only to the drive. Servo systems must be tuned to
match the load they are moving for the best performance. A properly
tuned system results in powerful and precise positioning of the load.The
Electronic Approach to SynchronizationProgrammable stepper and servo
motor systems provide a direct replacement to mechanical components, and
solve many problems. Individual axes are driven from individual motors
instead of gears and drive trains. The speed and position relationship
between axes is controlled with the controller, and this may be
infinitely and continuously adjusted, rather than fixed as with gears.
Motors deliver the motion directly to the appropriate place, eliminating
the need for drive trains. The problems of backlash and mechanical wear
are gone, resulting in precise, repeatable control and reduced
maintenance.Complex position relationships between axes may be
programmed and stored in the controller as direct replacements for
mechanical cams, eliminating the cost and maintenance associated with
cams and improving the reliability and accuracy of the resulting motion.
Controllers can also accept electronic inputs from sensors, read runtime
status from other parts of a machine, and impose delays or dwells. These
features give much greater design flexibility and run-time
decision-making power to a machine than could be achieved with
mechanical components.Programmable acceleration and deceleration allow
very smooth and controlled starts and stops to individual axes of
motion. The smoothness reduces machine wear and makes a machine run more
quietly. The control gives better precision in the axis synchronization,
which results in better quality in overall machine function. The
increased control also allows higher speed moves on the individual axes.
This translates directly into increased throughput and higher
productivity for a machine.The Benefits of FlexibilityWhile increased
quality, reliability, and throughput of a machine are certainly
desirable design considerations, perhaps the most important benefit of
programmable motion control is that of flexibility. A machine built with
mechanical synchronization components is limited in function by the
particular gears and cams installed. To process a different product on
the same machine could require significant machine downtime and
changeover labor as cams and gears are replaced. By contrast, a machine
built with programmable synchronization components is limited only by
the programs. The machine may be modified for a different product simply
by selecting a new program. This allows a given machine to produce a
wide variety of products, and remain fully utilized, regardless of
changes in production requirements. As production practices become
increasingly capital-intensive, the significance of full machine
utilization becomes increasingly important.The economics of production
today also demand flexibility. The competitive advantage goes not just
to those who produce great quantity of product on a machine, but also to
those who can produce a great variety on a single machine. The
flexibility and rapid changeover made possible by programmable
electronic motion control is becoming increasingly important with
today’s manufacturing trends. The emphasis on Just-In-Time (JIT)
manufacturing and higher standards of customer service make rapid
response to changing product mix imperative to remaining competitive.
The vendor who can respond to a custom product order, or a small
quantity request for product, will be the preferred vendor. Similarly,
those who design, build, and sell machines for others will benefit if
their customers can build several products with one machine, or if one
machine can serve the needs of many different types of
customers.Introduction to FollowingIn the motion control applications
described above, we could assume that all axes are under central
control, and that this central controller is synchronizing the motion of
each axis. In many applications, however, there may be motion which is
generated or controlled externally. Even so, it may be important to
synchronize other axes to this motion. The general term for this type of
synchronization is “following”, and it applies to any controlled motion
which responds to some other measured motion. The measured motion axis
is called the “master”, and the controlled axis is called the
“follower”.The discussion of gears and cams above gives a good example
of the need for following. Suppose other axes must be synchronized to an
externally controlled rotating shaft. By measuring its motion, the shaft
becomes the master, and the motion of secondary axes may be controlled
as a function of the motion of that shaft. Electronic gearing is
achieved by moving a follower axis at a defined ratio to the motion of
the master shaft. Electronic cams may be created by designing a
repeating pattern of changing ratio to the motion of the master
shaft.Key Concepts of FollowingThe concept that distinguishes following
from other methods of synchronization is the assignment of a master to a
controlled axis. The master motion is measured and responded to by the
follower. The actual master motion will usually be external motion
measured with an encoder. It may also simply be another axis of a
multi-axis controller.The concept of ratio is the most basic in
following. The ratio is the change in an axis position (follower travel)
with respect to the change in master travel. A direct analogy is
velocity, which is the change in an axis position with respect to time.
The important difference is that the control of the follower is
programmed as a function of master motion, not of time. This is what
locks the relationship between the motion of two or more axes, and
allows for precise synchronization. The ratio may change within a
profile, as shown in the winding example below. In order to completely
define the position relationship between master and follower axes, the
master travel over which the ratio changes must be specified. A change
in ratio over a known master travel is analogous to acceleration, which
is a change in velocity over time.Coil winding and filter winding are
good examples of applications which may benefit from following. These
winding applications often use a repetitive pattern of changing ratio.
Typically, a rapidly rotating spindle holds a bobbin onto which a coil
is wound. A traverse axis moves back and forth along the length of the
coil at a ratio to the spindle rotation, guiding the wire as it is wound
onto the bobbin. A low ratio of traverse motion to spindle rotation will
result in a tight coil, i.e., a large number of turns per inch.A higher
ratio of traverse motion to spindle rotation will result in a looser
coil.The Master Cycle ConceptThe master cycle concept provides a useful
way of dividing continuous master motion into meaningful portions. The
controller accepts a master cycle length definition from the programmer,
and subsequently measures master travel in terms of cycles and positions
within a cycle. The master cycle concept is analogous to minutes and
hours on a clock. Even though time marches on continuously, it is useful
for us to divide time into hours and minutes within an hour. We define a
cycle length of 60 minutes, and discuss time in terms of how many
minutes past which hour. In most applications, one master cycle will
correspond to one machine cycle, or one product. In the winding example
above, the master cycle length would probably be defined as the amount
of spindle rotation required for one complete forward and backward
traverse cycle of the wire guide axis. A coil with 20 layers would go
through 10 master cycles.Because a master cycle usually corresponds to a
product cycle, it is important to begin the measurement of master travel
at the spot that corresponds to the beginning of a product cycle. This
is usually initiated by detecting the arrival of a product or moving
machine part with an electronic sensor. In some cases, it may not be
possible to physically place the sensor at the location that corresponds
to the beginning of a product cycle. In this case, the controller would
be programmed to assign an initial non-zero value of master travel that
corresponded to the physical offset of the sensor.Phase Shifts During
Following If a controlled follower axis is following a master axis at
certain ratio, that ratio determines the change in follower position
with respect to a change in master position, but not the alignment of
master and follower. In most applications, a moving machine part must
exactly match the speed of another moving part or product, i.e., they
move at a 1:1 ratio. They must also be properly aligned, and this
alignment is known as phase. A familiar example of phase adjustment is
the use of a timing strobe in the adjustment of automobile engine
timing.In following, a phase shift may be commanded to correct the
alignment of master and follower without affecting the ratio of the
motion. In terms of visual alignment, the phase shift appears as an
advance or retard of the follower. During a shift, motion has two
components. One component is the result of following, the other is the
result of shifting. The shift is a normal move, and is specified with an
acceleration and velocity. This motion is superimposed onto the motion
which results from following at a specified ratio. If the amount of
alignment correction is known, a preset shift may be commanded as shown
in the graph below. In some cases, a visual alignment must be done by an
operator of the machine. In these cases, a continuous shift would be
commanded until the alignment was corrected. The shift component would
then be stopped, without stopping the component of motion resulting from
following.Web ProcessingPrinting onto a continuous web of paper is a
common example of web processing. The application problems in this task
are solved using the capabilities of following described above. In the
drawing below, the inked print portion of the print drum must apply the
print pattern onto the paper exactly between the registration marks on
the paper.While the print is being applied, the surface speed of the
print drum must match the speed of the paper exactly, to avoid smearing
the print. In this particular paper product, the distance between
registration marks is shorter than the circumference of the drum. This
means that the drum must speed up during the non-print portion of its
rotation, then slow back down to match surface speed at the proper
location. Although the distance between registration marks is nominally
even, minor variations require that alignment correction be done each
time a registration mark is detected.A solution for this application
which would use following is shown in figure 5.The paper travel is
measured with an encoder, and is the master axis for this application.
The print drum is the follower axis, and must follow the motion of the
paper. The ratio is described in terms of surface travel, and must be
1:1 during the printing portion of the cycle. During the remainder of
the cycle, the ratio must be higher, such that the drum travels one
revolution for each registration mark. When the registration mark passes
the registration sensor, the drum should be exactly halfway through the
non-print portion of the cycle. The actual drum position is captured
when the registration mark is sensed, and it alignment is corrected with
a superimposed phase shift.Motion coordination is required in many
industrial processes, and can take many forms. The accuracy of motion
synchronization in a machine directly affects the quality of the
products made by that machine. In the past, the speed and accuracy of
synchronization has been limited by the use of mechanical components.
The development of programmable electronic motion control, however, has
made great improvements in multi-axis synchronization possible,
replacing mechanical components such as gears, clutches, and brakes. The
flexibility of programmable electronic motion control has significant
economic benefits as well, because it allows short production runs and
custom product requests. The downtime associated with these short runs
is minimized when the setup is programmable.One specific technique
called “following” allows programming the motion of one axis as a
function of the measured motion of another. Key following concepts are
the ratio of follower to master motion, superimposed shifts, and
measurement of master motion in meaningful cycles. Any application which
is described with terms such as “gearing”, “catch up with”, “advance and
retard”, or “cam motion pattern” may be best solved using the
capabilities of programmable electronic motion control with
following.The motion controller chosen for the application must have the
sophisticated following and multi-axis control features described
above.Multiple axes may follow a single master, or multiple masters and
control programs may be used simultaneously.(end)

产品特点:

 

 

  The product uses precision planetary roller screw drive technology,
built-in brushless servo motor,applicable to a low,medium and
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integrated brushless servo motor and ball screw drive structure, servo
motor rotor rotary motion into linear motion directly by putting a ball
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